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Fiber May Lower Risk of Osteoarthritis

Millions of people, worldwide and across the United States are affected by Osteoarthritis. The latest research showed that diets rich in fiber may lower the risk of developing painful knee osteoarthritis.  

What is osteoarthritis? It’s known as the most common arthritis also named the “wear and tear,” arthritis, over 30 million U.S. adults are affected by it. Almost 10 percent of men and 18 percent of women aged 60 and over love with symptomatic OA, worldwide. Women over the age of 50 are more likely to develop the condition compared to men.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases recently published new research that investigated the link between having a diet rich in fiber and the risk of developing knee OA. The study consisted of a meta-analysis examining two long-term studies on the benefits of a fiber-rich diet. The collaborative study was conducted by researchers from Tufts University in Boston MA and the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Dr. Zhaoli Dai, of the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging and Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University was the first author of the study.

For years, studies have concluded that diets rich in fiber provided a variety of health benefits like lowered blood pressure, lower weight, reduced inflammation and even improved blood sugar levels. Fiber sources include nuts, legumes, fruits, whole grains, and non-starchy vegetables.

Studying the link between OA and fiber intake

The new studies included 4,795 participants – Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and 1,267 participants – Framingham Offspring Osteoarthritis Study. Fiber intake was determined by researchers before beginning the study using a food frequency questionnaire. They also assessed incident radiographic OA and symptomatic OA – that is, they used X-ray to determine OA and recorded OA symptoms, the most common of which include knee pain, stiffness, and swelling.

During the study OAI participants were clinically followed ever year for 48 months, and they were evaluated after 9 years as part of the Framingham study. Data was also collected by researcher that may have influenced results like a knee injury, medication, lifestyle, alcohol consumption, and physical exercise.

Low Fiber Intake

During the study, on average, patients consumed 15 grams of fiber daily in the OAI study and 19 grams of fiber daily for the Framingham study.

By the end of the 4 year period – OAI study – a total of 869 participants had OA knee symptoms, 152 showed signs of OA on the X-ray, and 1,964 participants said their knee pain got worse.

At the end of the 9-year period – Framingham study – 143 participants had OA symptoms, and 175 saw signs of OA in their X-rays.

The statistical analysis indicated that higher intake of fiber correlated with a lower risk of OA. Participants were broken up into fourths or quartiles, with the top quartile being compared the the lowest in terms of fiber intake.

Participants who consumed the most fiber had a 30 percent lower risk of OA in the OAI study, and 61 percent lower risk of OA in the Framingham study compared with those who consumed the least amount of fiber.

Furthermore, the study revealed that consuming more fiber in general, as well as more cereal fiber in particular, significantly reduced the risk of the knee pain getting worse. However, as the study is observational, it cannot establish causality.

“Findings from two longitudinal studies consistently showed that higher total fiber intake was related to a lower risk of [symptomatic OA], while the relation to [incident radiographic OA] was unclear.” – Dr. Zhaoli Dai

By Kristina Mancino

Natural Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis

By Kristina Mancino

                   Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects an estimated 1.5 million people in the United States. More women than men deal with this autoimmune disease that can reduce a person’s quality of life and cause disability or premature death. Before we discuss natural remedies for this disease, we need to first identify what it is and what causes it.  Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease in which the immune system attacks the individual’s own body tissues. Most commonly in small joints like the hands and feet, symptoms can also affect other parts like the lungs. RA creates inflammation which then causes the lining of joints to become thickened. If not checked, damage from inflammation can occur in the cartilage and bones. 

         Causes of RA is unknown but some information can be linked to genetics, environmental, and hormonal factors. Symptoms often begin around middle aged people or older. People commonly encounter inflammation, stiffness, pain, and swelling in the area of the joint. The body as a whole can experience fatigue and weight loss. Symptoms come and go over time and may vary from person to person. Before beginning any new treatment, including natural remedies, speak to a doctor to learn about the options and make appropriate lifestyle changes. If inflammation or symptoms become worse, talk to your doctor. 

          RA can be treated medically or non-medically, it’s not uncommon if both methods are combined. Since RA is a progressive disease, if it’s not treated and it becomes worse, treatment could be aggressive. It’s important to get a diagnosis, within 3 months of using disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) it can help reduce disease activity and prevent the joints from deforming. To help reduce discomfort and improve mobility, people with RA should discuss medical treatments with specialists and simple remedies that can help them.

         Physical therapy may help those who have RA according to clinical guidelines from Orgao Oficial da Sociedade Portugue sa de Reumatologia. Here are some suggested natural remedies for rheumatoid arthritis:

Stretching 

          A study published in Health Technology Assessment concluded simple stretches, as well as strengthening programs, of the muscle around the joint could relieve RA symptoms in the hands and wrists. It could be a more effective supplement to traditional care methods. To prevent undue stress, contact your doctor or physical therapist before beginning a stretching regimen. 

Exercise

          Stretching and dynamic low-stress workouts may help. Things like swimming or cycling can help strengthen the muscles around the joins affected by RA, reducing the impact and slowing the progression on joints. 

Heat and Cold

          Many experts have argued the medical evidence of putting heat and cold on the affected areas. It’s possible this method may provide relief to the sore areas on the body. People can use heat packs and ice packs at home. For a deeper level treatment, ultrasound heat and cold spray which can deliver into deep levels of tissue without noticeably changing the temperature of the skin. 

Balanced Rest

          Rest for aching joints is very important. Balancing strengthening exercise with the proper rest period should be closely monitored by a doctor and physical therapist. Note, too much rest can making aching joints worse.

Diet

         Since RA causes inflammation in the joints, maintaining an anti-inflammatory diet can be key in reducing inflammation and other symptoms of RA. Complementary Therapies in Medicine published a study with 600 participants who followed this plant-based diet. The diet was rich in fresh fruits and vegetable, whole grain, legumes, nuts, and seeds. During the study, researchers found a reduction of a specific protein that is know for causing inflammation. Those who followed an anti-inflammatory vegan diet showed a noticeable reduction of systemic inflammation. For overall wellbeing and to reduce pain, people with RA should maintain an anti-inflammatory diet to remain healthy. 

Supplements

          Supplements like fish oil from cold water fish like salmon, mackerel, tuna, cod, and herring contain high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids helps to fight against the inflammatory disease by blocking inflammatory receptors in the body. The Nutrition Society used a study by meta-analysis, that indicated people who used both fish oil and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for an extended time saw a decrease in joint pain. 

          Other supplements like boswellia or frankincense may also relieve symptoms. Researcher found that turmeric showed promise in reducing joint inflammation. Turmeric can be added to spice food up without side effect. *It’s noted that people who use turmeric supplements should use caution. People who are on Warfarin and other blood-thinning medication should not use turmeric. 

          Probiotics can also be beneficial for people with RA, a recent study stated, probiotic, L. casei 01 improved disease activity and inflammation. People can get all the probiotics they need by simply incorporating food such as yogurt, pickles, and cheese.

         Supplements may provide people with RA relief from this progressive disease but it’s important to speak with a doctor before taking any of these supplements because some can cause adverse side effects.. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not regulate herbs and supplements. 

Lifestyle Changes

It’s important to reduce any daily stresses on the body and mind. Things like mindful meditation, Tai chi, yoga, and qi gong can bring balance and relaxation to the body. Introducing these little changes can make a big impact to diminishing joint pain.

*Make sure to speak with you doctor and physical therapist before beginning any of these natural remedies.

Anti-Inflammatory Diet Linked To Osteoporosis Prevention

By Kristina Mancino

          The National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimates that more than 53 millions people, in the United States, has or has the risk of developing osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a condition that affects our bones, it reduces strength which leads to a higher risk of fractured bones. It is the leading cause of fractures in postmenopausal women and the elderly. Injuries to the hip, wrist, and spine are most common with hip fractures being the most serious due to hospitalization and surgery. In previous years, it was believed to be a natural part of age but as research furthers, medical experts say it can be and should prevented.

         A new study lead by Tonya Orchard, an assistant professor of human nutrition at the Ohio State University, found a link between nutrition and osteoporosis. The study was published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Density. Orchard and her team investigated data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WIH), the largest health study of postmenopausal women, was used to compared levels of inflammatory nutrients in the diet with bone mineral density (BMD) level and fracture incidence. Loss of bone mass can happen to anyone, postmenopausal women have higher risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. The study wanted conducted to see if there were benefits to maintaining an anti-inflammatory diet.

         From the longitudinal study, conducted between 1993 and 1998, researchers used the dietary inflammatory index (DII) comparing the measurements with the risk of fractures in the hip, lower-arm, or other fractures. To assist the changes in BMD and DII, food frequency questionnaires were given to 160,191 women, average aged 63, reported they did not have a history of hip fractures at the beginning of the study. For 6 years the women were studied, of the BMD data 10,290 women collected fraction data. Orchard used Cox models to calculate fracture hazard rations and adjust for age, race, ethnicity, and other variables.

          The study found that highly inflammatory diets were linked to fractures, but only in those of younger Caucasian women. Results in women under the age of 63 also found correlations of low-inflammatory diets and its benefits in helping young Caucasian to lowering the risk of osteoporosis and the prevention of loss of bone mass. White women, 63 years old and younger, with a higher DII score had a 50 percent higher risk of hip fractures. Women who had a lower inflammatory diet overall had lower bone density. As mentioned above, it’s suggested that a high quality, anti-inflammatory diet can prevent and lower risks of osteoporosis. A list of foods that support an anti-inflammatory diet include: fruit, vegetables, fish, whole grains, and nuts.

“[Our study] suggests that as women age, healthy diets are impacting their bones. I think this give us yet another reason to support the recommendations for a healthy diet in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.” – Tonya Orchard

The study’s senior author and director of Ohio State’s Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Rebecca Jackson, says the study confirms previous studies of inflammatory factors and how they increase the risk of osteoporosis.

“By looking at the full diet rather than individual nutrients, these data provide a foundation for studying how components of the diet might interact to provide benefit and better inform women’s health and lifestyle choices,” Jackson says.