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Fiber May Lower Risk of Osteoarthritis

Millions of people, worldwide and across the United States are affected by Osteoarthritis. The latest research showed that diets rich in fiber may lower the risk of developing painful knee osteoarthritis.  

What is osteoarthritis? It’s known as the most common arthritis also named the “wear and tear,” arthritis, over 30 million U.S. adults are affected by it. Almost 10 percent of men and 18 percent of women aged 60 and over love with symptomatic OA, worldwide. Women over the age of 50 are more likely to develop the condition compared to men.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases recently published new research that investigated the link between having a diet rich in fiber and the risk of developing knee OA. The study consisted of a meta-analysis examining two long-term studies on the benefits of a fiber-rich diet. The collaborative study was conducted by researchers from Tufts University in Boston MA and the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Dr. Zhaoli Dai, of the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging and Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University was the first author of the study.

For years, studies have concluded that diets rich in fiber provided a variety of health benefits like lowered blood pressure, lower weight, reduced inflammation and even improved blood sugar levels. Fiber sources include nuts, legumes, fruits, whole grains, and non-starchy vegetables.

Studying the link between OA and fiber intake

The new studies included 4,795 participants – Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and 1,267 participants – Framingham Offspring Osteoarthritis Study. Fiber intake was determined by researchers before beginning the study using a food frequency questionnaire. They also assessed incident radiographic OA and symptomatic OA – that is, they used X-ray to determine OA and recorded OA symptoms, the most common of which include knee pain, stiffness, and swelling.

During the study OAI participants were clinically followed ever year for 48 months, and they were evaluated after 9 years as part of the Framingham study. Data was also collected by researcher that may have influenced results like a knee injury, medication, lifestyle, alcohol consumption, and physical exercise.

Low Fiber Intake

During the study, on average, patients consumed 15 grams of fiber daily in the OAI study and 19 grams of fiber daily for the Framingham study.

By the end of the 4 year period – OAI study – a total of 869 participants had OA knee symptoms, 152 showed signs of OA on the X-ray, and 1,964 participants said their knee pain got worse.

At the end of the 9-year period – Framingham study – 143 participants had OA symptoms, and 175 saw signs of OA in their X-rays.

The statistical analysis indicated that higher intake of fiber correlated with a lower risk of OA. Participants were broken up into fourths or quartiles, with the top quartile being compared the the lowest in terms of fiber intake.

Participants who consumed the most fiber had a 30 percent lower risk of OA in the OAI study, and 61 percent lower risk of OA in the Framingham study compared with those who consumed the least amount of fiber.

Furthermore, the study revealed that consuming more fiber in general, as well as more cereal fiber in particular, significantly reduced the risk of the knee pain getting worse. However, as the study is observational, it cannot establish causality.

“Findings from two longitudinal studies consistently showed that higher total fiber intake was related to a lower risk of [symptomatic OA], while the relation to [incident radiographic OA] was unclear.” – Dr. Zhaoli Dai

By Kristina Mancino

‘Pink Noise’ A Deep Sleep and Memory Solution

‘Pink Noise’ A Deep Sleep and Memory Solution

It’s no surprise that as we age and get older our quality of sleep declines. As researchers look into the decline, they believe that lack of sleep can contribute to later-life memory loss. As new research emerges, a simple solution could be the answer to more restful sleep. The answer: “pink noise.”

Pink noise is defined as gentle, soothing sound whereby each octave possesses equal energy. A better explanation, pink noise is the background noise we hear in everyday life.

Researchers from Northwestern University in Evanston, IL, found that while older adults slept, if they synced up pink noise to their brain waves, the sound enhanced their quality of deep sleep and improve their memory. The findings were published in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, by senior author Dr. Phyllis Zee, a professor of neurology at the Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern.

In previous studies, throughout the years, the core of numerous studies highlighted the importance of sleep for memory consolidation. Which is, the brain’s ability to convert short-term memories into long-term memories. As we age, the quality of slow-wave sleep (SWS) decreases. Slow-wave sleep is commonly known as deep sleep which is part of the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep cycle that is important for memory consolidation. Studies have shown that disruption of the NREM cycle can cause negative consequences for our memory.  

Previous research from Dr. Zee and team uncovered a link, in young adults, between acoustic stimulation of slow-wave brain activity during sleep and improved memory. For now, it’s noted that studies are lacking when it comes to using acoustic stimulation in older adults.

Acoustic simulations boost SWS, memory in later life

“To address this gap in research, Dr. Zee and colleagues enrolled 13 older adults, aged between 60 and 84 years, to their study.

All adults were subject to one night of sham stimulation and one night of acoustic stimulation, which were around 1 week apart. The acoustic stimulation incorporated pink noise that was synced to their brain waves as they slept.

For each session, the adults completed two memory recall tests – one before they went to sleep at night, and one after they woke up the following morning.

While memory recall improved under both conditions, the researchers found that the average improvement following acoustic stimulation was three times greater than with the sham stimulation.

The greater improvement in memory as a result of acoustic stimulation correlated with a greater increase in the quality of SWS, which the team says emphasizes how important deep sleep is for memory consolidation, even in later life.

Overall, the researchers believe that their findings indicate that acoustic stimulation may be an effective way to boost sleep quality and memory in older age.” – Medical News Today

“This is an innovative, simple, and safe non-medication approach that may help improve brain health. This is a potential tool for enhancing memory in older populations and attenuating normal age-related memory decline.”

Dr. Phyllis Zee

Further studies of involving a larger number of participants is needed before acoustic stimulation can be recommended.

by Kristina Mancino

Study Shows Mentally Stimulating Activities Reduce Cognitive Impairment


By Kristina Mancino

          Mild cognitive impairment is known clinically as the intermediate stage between normal cognitive function and dementia. A new study researched whether or not mentally stimulating activities can reduce the risk of mild cognitive impairment. In several long-term studies, between 16 and 20 percent of people developed mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Mild cognitive impairment is the loss of cognitive function, it’s not severe enough to interfere with daily activities, but it’s likely 20 to 40 percent of people with MCI develop dementia.

         Dr. Yonas E. Geda from the Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, AZ, led the new study, which took a look a the possible link between brain-stimulating activities and cognitive functioning in healthy adults aged 70+. The study also analyzed the influence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype. During the study, Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, 1,929 cognitively healthy seniors, were examined for 4 years to see how many would develop mild cognitive impairment. Dr. Geda and her team used the Cox regression models for statistical analysis and adjusted it for sex, age, and education.  Participants were given an examine before starting, all were cognitively normal and provided information about the brain stimulating activities they participated in during that year. Every 15 months each participant were given a neurocognitive assessment starting with the baseline for seniors. They also took blood tests to determine APOE ε4 genotyping with is commonly associated with a high risk of late-onset dementia. It has yet to be determined the mechanism responsible between the gene variant and the buildup of Alzheimer’s-related amyloid plaques.  

         The end result of the study showed 456 participants (over 23 percent) developed new-onset mild cognitive impairment. Furthermore, it was concluded that 512 participants (26.7 percent) carried the APOE ε4 genotype. The research also found that brain-stimulating activities such as computer use, crafts, social activities, and playing game significantly decreased the risk on new-onset mild cognitive impairment. Statistically, reading books was associated with a significant decrease. People who weren’t carriers of APOE ε4 genotype and participated in mentally stimulating activitied had the lowest risk of mild cognitive impairment. Noted, those did carry APOE ε4 and did not actively engage in mentally stimulating activities showed the highest risk of developing mild cognitive impairment.

         The conclusion of the study found that engaging in brain-stimulating activities later in life can lower the chances of developing MCI.